- Secondary Cataract
- Age-related Macular Degeneration
- Diabetic Retinopathy
- Dry Eye
- “Floaters” and Flashes
Myopia occurs when the eye is longer than normal or has a cornea that is too steep. As a result, light rays focus in front of the retina instead of on it. In this case, you see near objects clearly, but distant objects will appear blurred.
Hyperopia is a condition in which light is focused behind the retina instead of on it, causing objects to be blurry.
In hyperopia, patients usually cannot see objects in close distances well, but they can see far objects normally, even though in some cases far sight may also be affected.
Hyperopia causes include heredity, axial length of the eyeball and reduced refractive power of the eye.
It is a natural condition which affects almost everyone after the age of 40 to 50.
Presbyopia has been the subject of study for the international ophthalmic community. It is a very complex condition involving structures of both the brain and the eye.
Inside our eyes, we have a natural lens. The lens bends (refracts) light rays that come into the eye to help us see. The lens should be clear, like the top lens in the illustration.
Vision Problems with Cataracts:
If you have a cataract, your lens has become cloudy, like the bottom lens in the illustration. It is like looking through a foggy or dusty car windshield. Things look blurry, hazy or less colorful with a cataract. The definition of a cataract is a cloudy lens in the eye, whatever the cause may be. Here the cataract lens is compared to a natural clear lens. The top lens is a clear, natural lens. The bottom lens shows clouding by cataract.
What Are the Symptoms of Cataracts?
Here are some vision changes you may notice if you have a cataract:
Having blurry vision.
Seeing double (when you see two images instead of one).
Being extra sensitive to light.
Having trouble seeing well at night, or needing more light when you read.
Seeing bright colors as faded or yellow instead.
Dull or yellowed vision from cataracts.
Dull or yellow vision from cataracts.
Blurry or dim vision from cataracts.
Blurry or dim vision is a symptom of cataracts.
Distortion or doubled images from cataracts.
Distortion or ghost images from cataracts.
See a simulation of what vision with cataract looks like. What Causes Cataracts?
Aging is the most common cause. This is due to normal eye changes that happen starting around age 40. That is when normal proteins in the lens start to break down. This is what causes the lens to get cloudy. People over age 60 usually start to have some clouding of their lenses. However, vision problems may not happen until years later.
Other reasons you may get cataracts include:
having parents, brothers, sisters, or other family members who have cataracts.
having certain medical problems, such as diabetes.
having had an eye injury, eye surgery, or radiation treatments on your upper body.
having spent a lot of time in the sun, especially without sunglasses that protect your eyes from damaging ultraviolet (UV) rays.
using certain medications such as corticosteroids, which may cause early formation of cataracts.
Most age-related cataracts develop gradually. Other cataracts can develop more quickly, such as those in younger people or those in people with diabetes. Doctors cannot predict how quickly a person’s cataract will develop.
You may be able to slow down your development of cataracts.
Protecting your eyes from sunlight is the best way to do this. Wear sunglasses that screen out the sun’s ultraviolet (UV) light rays. You may also wear regular eyeglasses that have a clear, anti-UV coating. Talk with your eye doctor to learn more.
In a cataract operation, the cloudy lens is replaced with a clear, artificial lens. However, in some cases, a hazy membrane can form just behind the intraocular lens implant. This is known as opacity of the posterior capsule, or secondary cataract.
Symptoms A posterior capsule opacity will only occur after cataract surgery. If you have had a cataract operation, and you have blurred, hazy vision, or see a lot of glare from lights, it may be because of a posterior capsule opacity. Blurring and loss of vision from posterior capsule opacity is usually gradual, just as with real cataracts. Treatment The treatment for posterior capsule opacity is very simple. A procedure called a YAG laser capsulotomy is used to remove the haziness, and restore normal vision. It is a fast, painless and very effective treatment. It only takes 5 minutes and can be done in our center.
There are two types of Age-related Macular Degeneration Dry and
The dry type affects approximately 85% of individuals with AMD. Photo-receptors in the center of the retina are destroyed. This leads to a decrease of central vision, which affects everyday activities, such as reading and driving. Dry type AMD can evolve to wet type AMD.
In wet (or exudative) type AMD, abnormal vessels develop beneath the retina, in the choroid of the macula. These may cause edema, hemorrhage and finally a scar on the macula. This causes a significant loss of central vision, central scotoma or metamorfopsia (straight lines appear wavy). As the macula is at the center of the retina, in macular degeneration peripheral vision remains unchanged.
The right diagnosis and treatment should take early enough place. Do not hecitate to contact us.
People with diabetes can have an eye disease called diabetic retinopathy. This is when high blood sugar levels cause damage to blood vessels in the retina. These blood vessels can swell and leak. Or they can close, stopping blood from passing through. Sometimes abnormal new blood vessels grow on the retina. All of these changes can steal your vision.
Stages of Diabetic Eye Disease:
There are two main stages of diabetic eye disease.
NPDR (non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy)
This is the early stage of diabetic eye disease. Many people with diabetes have it.
With NPDR, tiny blood vessels leak, making the retina swell. When the macula swells, it is called macular edema. This is the most common reason why people with diabetes lose their vision.
Also with NPDR, blood vessels in the retina can close off. This is called macular ischemia. When that happens, blood cannot reach the macula. Sometimes tiny particles called exudates can form in the retina. These can affect your vision too.
If you have NPDR, your vision will be blurry.
PDR (proliferative diabetic retinopathy)
PDR is the more advanced stage of diabetic eye disease. It happens when the retina starts growing new blood vessels. This is called neovascularization. These fragile new vessels often bleed into the vitreous. If they only bleed a little, you might see a few dark floaters. If they bleed a lot, it might block all vision.
These new blood vessels can form scar tissue. Scar tissue can cause problems with the macula or lead to a detached retina.
PDR is very serious, and can steal both your central and peripheral (side) vision.
Diabetic Retinopathy Symptoms
You can have diabetic retinopathy and not know it. This is because it often has no symptoms in its early stages. As diabetic retinopathy gets worse, you will notice symptoms such as:
- seeing an increasing number of floaters,
- having blurry vision,
- having vision that changes sometimes from blurry to clear,
- seeing blank or dark areas in your field of vision,
- having poor night vision
- noticing colors appear faded or washed out losing vision.
Diabetic retinopathy symptoms usually affect both eyes.
Glaucoma is a disease that damages your eye’s optic nerve. It usually happens when fluid builds up in the front part of your eye. That extra fluid increases the pressure in your eye, damaging the optic nerve.
Types of glaucoma
The types of glaucoma are:
Acute and chronic angle-closure glaucoma
Normal tension glaucoma
Proper examinations and tests should take place , in the early stages.
How Do Tears Work?
When you blink, a film of tears spreads over the eye. This keeps the eye’s surface smooth and clear. The tear film is important for good vision.
The tear film is made of three layers:
An oily layer A watery layer A mucus layer
Each layer of the tear film serves a purpose.
The oily layer is the outside of the tear film. It makes the tear surface smooth and keeps tears from drying up too quickly. This layer is made in the eye’s meibomian glands.
The watery layer is the middle of the tear film. It makes up most of what we see as tears. This layer cleans the eye, washing away particles that do not belong in the eye. This layer comes from the lacrimal glands in the eyelids.
The mucus layer is the inner layer of the tear film. This helps spread the watery layer over the eye’s surface, keeping it moist. Without mucus, tears would not stick to the eye. Mucus is made in the conjunctiva. This is the clear tissue covering the white of your eye and inside your eyelids.
Normally, our eyes constantly make tears to stay moist. If our eyes are irritated, or we cry, our eyes make a lot of tears. But, sometimes the eyes don’t make enough tears or something affects one or more layers of the tear film. In those cases, we end up with dry eyes.
Dry Eye Symptoms
Here are some of the symptoms of dry eye.
You feel like your eyes are stinging and burning. There is a scratchy or gritty feeling like something is in your eye. There are strings of mucus in or around your eyes. Your eyes are red or irritated. This is especially true when you are in the wind or near cigarette smoke. It is painful to wear contact lenses. You have lots of tears in your eyes.
Having a lot of tears in your eyes with “dry eye” might sound odd. But your eyes make more tears when they are irritated by dry eye. Dry Eye Causes
People tend to make fewer tears as they get older due to hormonal changes. Both men and women can get dry eye. However, it is more common in women—especially those who have gone through menopause.
Here are some other causes of dry eye.
Certain diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren’s syndrome, thyroid disease, and lupus Blepharitis (when eyelids are swollen or red) Entropion (when eyelids turn in); ectropion (eyelids turn outward) Being in smoke, wind or a very dry climate Looking at a computer screen for a long time, reading and other activities that reduce blinking Using contact lenses for a long time Having refractive eye surgery, such as LASIK Taking certain medicines, such as: Diuretics (water pills) for high blood pressure Beta-blockers, for heart problems or high blood pressure Allergy and cold medicines (antihistamines) Sleeping pills Anxiety and antidepressant medicines Heartburn medicines